Tag Archives: United States

Black God and White Devil in the Urban Ghettos of America – in Polish

Religion and Black Nationalism of the Nation of Islam

The Nation of Islam, commonly known as the Black Muslim movement, appeared during the Great Depression in the black ghettos of the big urban and industrial centers in the Emnorthern United States. It was founded by W. Fard Muhammad, one of the probably most mysterious figures in the history of Black America, in whom his followers saw the incarnation of Allah. Its doctrine was a combination of an extremely heterodox or “heretical” Islam and a separatist variety of black nationalism. A quarter of century later, the marginal sect led by Elijah Muhammad as Messenger of Allah became the most important new religious movement to emerge in the U.S. in the twentieth century. It has proved to be the largest and longest-lived nationalist movement among the American blacks. Its activities, including the preaching of “black internationalism”, were seen by the federal authorities as a threat to national security. The outstanding revolutionary leader Malcolm X emerged from its bosom. Rooted in the lowest layers of the black working class, the Nation of Islam durably and successfully questions the liberal middle-class leadership of the northern black communities, which aspires toward integration into white society.

The full text in Polish is available here:

Zbigniew Marcin Kowalewski, Czarny Bóg i biały diabeł w miejskich gettach Ameryki. Religia i czarny nacjonalizm Narodu Islamu

Vsevolod Holubnychy: The Future of the Soviet Union (1951)

Vsevolod Holubnychy

Vsevolod Holubnychy, Edusa.org

This article could have been the most impressive and serious contribution to Marxist debates about the perspectives of capitalist restoration in the Soviet Union after the Second World War, but rested almost totally ignored. It was written in 1951, exactly forty years before the fall of the URSS, by Vsevolod Holubnychy. A young wartime immigrant from the Soviet Ukraine, Holubnychy became in the West, at first, a radical left-wing militant inside the Ukrainian diaspora, and, later, a scholar. His viewpoint on the future of the USSR was based on a first-hand and theoretically informed knowledge of Soviet social realities, popular moods and ideological developments of the anti-Soviet nationalist underground in Ukraine. Today the article poses some crucial questions that are still worth discussion in the light of the long-term effects of bureaucratic rule upon the evolution of the Soviet society and the development of restorationist tendencies.

Vsevolod Holubnychy, The Future of the Soviet Union (1951)